Dna methylation and autism spectrum disorder

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Subject Area:English

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ASD mostly affect young children who may inherit the disorder from their parents due to the fact that autism is connected to the genes and DNA of an individual. Reason of choosing this topic Since I saw people around me asking questions about causes of Autism spectrum disorder and they do not have answers to their questions, I tried to research to find scientific answers. Incidence/ Morbidity and mortality rates. Autism spectrum disorders are known to be a complex set of the human neuropsychiatric disease. It develops at the very early childhood stages and most of the time the disease last throughout lifetime (Guerra, 2011). Research has demonstrated that this ailment is the most heritable and in this way alluded as the genome-based human malady. Insights demonstrates that monozygotic twins have a 9% shot of sharing the illness while the dizygotic twins just have 5-10 % possibilities. Research has showed that people with autism spectrum disorder dies at an average of 16 years earlier than those without the condition and the mortality rate of them is about 2. percent (Guerra, 2011). Furthermore, it was discovered that the leading cause of people with autism is heart disease epilepsy and also suicide. People who suffer from ASD have a life expectancy of an average age of 45 while those individual who do not have the disease the average life expectancy is at 70 years (Guerra, 2011). Risk factors Family history of having a family member with ASD, increase the parentage of having ASD, Extremely preterm babies, viral infections, medications or complications during pregnancy , genetic disorder such as x-fragile syndrome.

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Patient with ASD have impairment in specific parts of the brain that control essential emotions, communication, and body movements, in the brain of ASD patient have too many nerve fibers, but that they're not working well enough to facilitate communication between the various parts of the brain. Despite the many research done trying to figure out the cause and risk factors that comes with ASD. Such research include the aspects of nutrition, vaccination and general health care and none has shown critical signs that are linked to ASD. However, one mysterious risk factor that for the disease in the fact that the male children are more likely to have ASD than the female children where the chances of getting the disease are at 4-5 times high compared to the females (Guerra, 2011).

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In addition, researchers have noted lopsided characteristics in synapses, for example, serotonin, which is a hormone know to influences feeling and conduct. Additionally, glutamate which assumes a job in neuron action. Disease state The symptoms and signs are vary according to which part affected ,and they include, Repeat words or phrases over and over , Have delayed speech and language skills, want to be alone, Have trouble understanding other people's, Have unusual reactions to sound , smell, test ,feel ,unable to change routine, lack of awareness of danger. Diagnosis There is no test to diagnose ASD , so the diagnosis will be through evaluation and observation of social interactions, communication skills and behavior. FRAAs bind to folate receptor A (FRA) in the brain, preventing folate from entering the brain. Blocked folate receptors cause cerebral folate deficiency, which impairs methylation and brain function.

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Autistic children have a high prevalence of FRAA compared to non-autistic children. The research on the relationship between MTHFR variants, folate receptor autoantibodies, and ASD suggests that supplying 5-MTHF and folic acid may help correct methylation deficits and alleviate symptoms in children on the ASD. Treatment There are different types of treatments offered to people with Autism spectrum disorder. Also there is treatment and training of mentally unbalanced and related correspondence incapacitated kids. This type of treatment is unique because it make use of different visual cues to help the patient learn different skills. For example, getting dressed. The information is placed into short steps so that one can learn and master easily without difficulty (Williams, Whiten, & Singh, 2004). Recent updates Other recent research find that the fragil X mental retardation gene promoter (FMR1promoter ) is hyper methylated (silencing of FMR1 gene ) due to expanding of CGG nucleotide >200 which increase methylation sites in fragil X mental retardation patients , in the normal individuals FMR1 gene code for FMR1 protein which is needed for typical brain development (Andrews, et.

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This disorder is hereditary and mainly there is no cure or a way to diagnose it using test. The disorder is diagnosed by social interview with the patient and behavior analysis. Research has shown that individual with ASD have low life expectancy of about 45 years as compared to normal individual whose life expectancy is almost 70 years. Furthermore, despite the many effects and symptoms that the ASD comes with, researchers have found different methods of treatment that help the patient emotionally and physically being able to live with the condition and at the same time to live as a normal individual. Recommendation Doing genetic testing through 23andMe. Schendel, D. E. Croen, L. A. Feinberg, A. Williams, J. H. Whiten, A. Singh, T. A systematic review of action imitation in autistic spectrum disorder.

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