Italy and Germany's Rise to Unification

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Subject Area:History

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This paper makes analysis of the history of how Germany and Italy were formed, the active players who contributed to unification and forces that led to formation of the two nation states. In Germany intellectuals such as Heinrich von and Goethe supported the Germany nation and Zollverein contributed to increased trade, taxes and reduced problems of the state governments1. Realpolitik is actually a Germany word coined by Ludwig Son von Rochau a 19th century writer and politician. It can stand for actual politics, practical politics, or real politics. Loosely translated it means win by any means necessary when it comes to politics. After 1850 Nationalism was powerful in the West. It came about when Napoleon was the ruler in France and that is what set the idea in motion for Italy and France. Many people revolted against Europe. Sicily was first followed by France, Germany, Italy, and Austria. Out of that 1848 failure came the unification of Italy and Germany. The North German confederation now consist of Prussia and the North German states, excluded the south states and Austria. Because of that Austria no long had an influence over Germany. With this knowledge of how unification can work. Germany saw that idealism was not the way but realism was and the best person for realpolitik was Otto von Bismarck for Germany2. In 1866 he started a war with Austria because of land in Duchy of Holstein to gain the German empire. He just used their fight for the Austria-Prussia war of 1866 and the war was won by Prussia after seven weeks.

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Economic reforms for instance Agrarian Revolution, an economy dealing with goods and commodities led to increased productivity and provision of raw materials to factories3. After 1948, the Prussians improvised new rules which created barriers against the members of Zollverein and removed Australia from the organization. Prussian opposition and Australia did not succeed in transforming from Germany Customs Union to Mid-Ethiopian Union. By 1850 the railway was 6,000 km long and this helped in breaking down of barriers and underlining the need of unification. Social changes affected unification for instance urban discontent affected the handworkers like the craftsmen whom their status declined 6. Poverty and unemployment led to disturbance. Rapid population growth led to landless laborers and declined their living standards. Social unrest contributed to demands for reforms and this provided favorable backgrounds to revolution. Economic forces lead to industrial growth.

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In 1822 some states for instance Rudolasadt, Gotha and Weimar joined in the 1818 laws. Political reforms like the formation of Germany National Association in 1959 was the practical step to unification8. Australia was to be removed from Germany and the New Germany to be united by the Prussian leadership. Some of the leaders were ready to make a sacrifice of constitutional government so as to have national unity. In 1866 the war against Austria contributed to unification process. The efforts of Cavour, Mazzini and Garibaldi contributed to unification of Italy. Several events took place during the unification of Italy for instance the Italian war of independence in 1848-1849. The nationalists rebelled against the Australian rule of the northern and southern Italian states and they were defeated at Custozza in July 1848 and at Novara battle in March 1849.

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The kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia which was under the rule of King Victor Emmanuel II became the central point of the Italian Nationalist Movement. Count Camillo Benson di Cavour became the prime minister of Piedmont and affected the liberal reforms in 1852. A big hurdle for Italy was that they did not have Rome or Venice, but because Bismarck of Prussia went to war with Austria, Cavour took that opportunity to finish Italy’s unification and Italy joined the war. Austria gave Rome and Venice to France, but France gave them to Italy and during the Franco-Prussian war French soldiers withdrew from Rome. Since that happened the Italian troops had no problems moving in and Rome became capital of Italy and 1871 was at last unified. Italian unity was lastly obtained through diplomacy and timing rather than the military greatness.

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Philosophers and writers contributed to unification of Italy. Piedmont had enough resources and it was possible for her to lead the other poorer states of Italy to unification. Cavour did some reforms in the military by modernizing, equipping and training them. The army defeated Austria in 1866 hence favoring the unification of Italy. The patriotism of the Italians facilitated the process of unification by 1870. The unification was supported by the middle class who were nobles, lived in urban centers and members of the national society of Italy. Unification had some negative effects like controlled politics, bloody wars and separation. Bibliography 1. Merkl Peter H, German unification in the European context. Penn State Press, 2010 2. Guzzini, Stefano. Evans, eds. The German Bourgeoisie (routledge Revivals): Essays on the Social History of the German Middle Class from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Century.

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Routledge, 2014. Brose, Eric Dorn. The politics of technological change in Prussia: out of the shadow of antiquity, 1809-1848. w18839. National Bureau of Economic Research, 11. Smith, G. Paterson, W. E. University of Michigan press.

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