Literacy Theories

Document Type:Cover letter

Subject Area:Criminology

Document 1

There are several theories that help in a learning process, for instance, the Information Processing Theory, Psycholinguistic theory, and Zone of proximal development among others. Information processing theory is a bottom-up theory which relates the human brain to that of a computer. He argues that, once humans receive an information, they process, manipulates and holds information. Psycholinguistic theory, on the other hand, is a top up theory studies how the brain interrupts language in a way that it observes grammar and sentence structure. Zone of proximal development theory brings a difference between what a learner can do and what he or she cannot do. In a light of the fact, on a computer, the information is gathered, stored, processed and output given.

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Similarly, in human, senses are used as inputs, brain stores and processes and reply or stimuli produced in response to the information (Hamamura, Meijer & Heine 2009). The theory has been developed over the years and broadened by developing other theories that support information processing theory. For instance, Stage theory developed by Atkinson and Shriffins presents a sequential form which outlines three key processes, Input, process and output. Craik and Lockhart present a theory of level of processing model which emphasizes on the need to expound information upon processing in various ways. Transfer of information to the next level is an important aspect since it creates a chance for the processing of information to take place. This implies that failure to sense stimuli other processes do not take place.

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The transfer of information is facilitated by factors such as attention and automaticity. In this case, attention is defined as limiting people's own perception and response to the stimuli generally. This can be achieved through focusing while trying to maintain some level of ignorance. The process that occurs in working memory is influenced by several factors. Basically, the level of cognitive load varies from one individual to the other. Similarly, mental effort applies at a given moment. Repetition of information, therefore, leads to automaticity hence no need to use many cognitive resources (Hamamura, Meijer & Heine 2009). Long-term memory which is the last component of the model of information processing theory accommodates various types of information which include declarative, procedural and imagery. In the modern society, where technology is evolving, information processing theory is applicable in generation of new concept, entering the data, processing and manipulating and storing the information for future use owing to the fact that computers are largely used in offices and learning institutions.

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Psycholinguistic Theory Psycholinguistic theory as mentioned earlier studies the ability of human beings to comprehend words. It measures the capacity to remark, give out and apply words in an efficient manner while communicating. This theory is termed as top-down because it first presents the need to understand words before using them. It was derived from the fact that children could learn the first language easily. From these, theorists of the Psycholinguistic theory are Piaget, Vygotsky and Goodluck (Stanovich 2017). Components of the Psycholinguistic theory include behavior, inmate, and social interaction. The behavioral concept relies on a component such as classical and operant conditioning. Operational conditioning is a method of learning embraced as a result of rewards and punishments for behaviors adopted. Therefore, the theorist believes that operational conditioning can as well work in language acquisition on the ground that language learning is a process which involves trial and error, a child attempts and fails to succeed, however, persistence trial improves chances of applying the language effectively.

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Therefore, the type of people children interact with, culture and environment influences language acquisition (Saxton, 2010). As a matter of fact, Goodman theory of Psycholinguistics is relevant and high applicable in the daily life because it highlights how a learner can learn the large volume of work and narrow it down to remain with the important information. Just as a child grasps a little information from a large talking of an adult, a reader, therefore, should be able to summarize key points. Interaction with teachers is encouraged since teacher will be able to explain further where content cannot be understood. Through technology, student-teacher interaction has been enhanced through use of computers which creates a platform for interaction while at a distance. Scaffolding is defined as the process by which teachers and other adults aid children with positive interactions.

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It is made effective by analyzing a child's level of knowledge and interacting with them at the same level. Zone of proximal development among children is applicable when learning how to speak. Adult's speech influences their thoughts, in turn, a manner of speaking among the children is also influenced. By this, theorists of Zone of proximal development theory are Jerome Bruner, David Wood, and Gail Ross. Consequently, it is necessary to offer guidance and assistance which can only be provided through interaction with peers or teachers. There is a need therefore for teachers to deliberately create collaborative structures that bring students together and ensure equal participation. By initiating this, students get a chance to move from a zone of proximal development to analyzing and self-sufficiency (Mayer 2008).

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Zone of proximal development is relevant in the modern society. The concept is a reflection of happens because there are things children do without help and others with. As a result, several theories have been developed for teachers and parents understand students learning the ability. For instance, information processing theory is a bottom-up concept which provides an understanding of the working mechanism of a mind, psycholinguistic theory, and a top-down is a concept which relates to how people receive information, interpret and use it. On the other hand, zone proximal development is a cognitive concept which associates learning with the environment, social interaction and learner's potential. These three theories are significant and applied together because once an information is received, it ought to be analyzed and later stored.

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