Pedagogy vs Practice for ESL Students Study in the USA

Document Type:Research Paper

Subject Area:Education

Document 1

The United States of America has often been described as a land of opportunity judging from the several stories of people that have transformed their lives in their country despite being immigrants. Nonetheless, the host of opportunities comes with challenges like for instance students pursuing an education in America face difficulties in communication especially foreign students that are not native English speakers. The Chinese students in America experience problems since they communicate in English as a Second Language in institutions with peers that enjoy a comparative advantage of being native English speaking students. The learning trajectory for Chinese students being English speakers as a Second Language demonstrates the practical challenges in school and how pedagogy plays a pivotal role in enhancing their capabilities. Pedagogy and Practical Experiences for ESL Students The most comprehensive and extensive approach that explores the development of human intelligence from infancy through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood is Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Piaget arguments that information results from continuous transformations and many states and change enhances a person's intellect. According to Low & Perner (2012), there are four stages of cognitive development which connote an expression that as human beings grow abstraction along with complexity in a rationalization of things and thinking increases. The four stages include the sensorimotor stages that span from birth till the child learns and acquires language. The preoperational stage which spans from two to seven years is the second stage. The child participates more in play and uses words, pictures, scribbles and drawing to represent objects.

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An understanding of the application of practical experiences through the establishment of Pedagogy creates a framework that better delivers a system on how educators can apply them in the classroom setting. Pierre (2015) explores the theories of cognitive development since the era of Piaget to date. Over the years, cognitive development has gone through radical changes in the last four decades since the previous interpretations in the constructivism of Jean Piaget. The English language for non-native speakers should be factored into an initiative that seeks to create an establishment of practical implementation learned skills in the institution. The development of pedagogy for most institutions should look into the need of creating a system capable of enhancing a system with practical outcomes of incorporating students from different settings (Kibler, Walqui, & Bunch, 2015). The practical assessments also help the teachers in evaluating the students based on their individual progress as opposed to using the usual standards of peers of the same age.

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The students construct their knowledge during interactions with their environment. The practical assessments will also help the educators to adapt their instructions in alignment with the developmental levels of the ESL students. In the determination to cater for the different cognitive concentrations of the students, teachers should ensure that content of the instructional materials is consistent with the student's developmental levels (Ovando, & Combs, 2018). The educator acts as a facilitator of learning by providing the children with a multiplicity of experiences. The experiences modify the new information and add or change the initial schemas. Smart & Marshall (2013), agree the learner is actively engaged in the adaptation or transformational processes which are ongoing. The process balances the experiences of the student and their understanding of the new information to come out with a better fit.

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New data typically challenges the students from birth throughout their growth (Smart & Marshall, 2013). An understanding of the adaptation process, the educators will be able to organize new information sequentially from known to an unknown to motivate the learners and change their perspective on new ideas. In most cases, the cognitive conflicts are fundamentally the developmental experiences which are positive within a learner. Through the challenges, the ESL students gain the ability to modify the cognitive structures and equilibrate by attaining the strategic point in the development when he is capable of solving more complex problems than before. Barrouillet (2015) explains assimilation as another concept in the theories of cognitive development describes the adaptation components when ideas that fit the learner's previous and present knowledge arises and is incorporated in his or her cognitive structures.

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The information not only complements but also extends the mind structures of a student along with the cognitive structures. It occurs when the learned knowledge is similar to an extent with the comprehensive knowledge and can be assimilated or added into the present intellectual structures. Barac, R. Bialystok, E. Castro, D. C. Sanchez, M.  TESOL Journal, 6(1), 9-35. Low, J. Perner, J. Implicit and explicit theory of mind: State of the art.  British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 1-13. Eds.  Language learning beyond the classroom. Routledge. Ovando, C. J. Verplaetse, L. S. Migliacci, N. Eds.  Inclusive pedagogy for English language learners: A handbook of research-informed practices.

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