RESEARCH DESIGN PROCESS
Positivism 5 1. Interpretivism 5 1. 3 Post-positivism 5 1. 4 Critical theory 6 1. 5 Constructivism 6 1. 1Deductive approach 13 1. 10 Data analysis and presentation 14 1. 11 Ethical considerations 15 1. 12 Conclusion 16 References 16 RESEARCH DESIGN PROCESSES 1. 0 Introduction The research design process involves identification of a research design, research paradigm, target population, sampling procedure, data collection methods, validity and reliability and data analysis, and presentation. The interpretivism concept argues that it is vital to understand the thoughts of an individual and their interpretation of various happenings around the world. Besides, the interpretivism approach uses the social aspects to develop deeper meaning of the influence of a person understand to situations. On the other hand, critical postmodernism helps to understand two different situations that has various personal understanding. Influences/ guides 1. Positivism The study of the human reaction is usually objective.
A post-positivism research utilizes reports events, situations, observations, and psychological situations to obtain data for a study. Besides, the approach assumes that the background information and theories employed in a study has a significant influence on the overall behavior of the respondents. post-positivism researchers pursue the objectives of the study as well as recognize the effects of the incidences of bias. 4 Critical theory Using the critical theory of research paradigm, a researcher is able to develop a communication channel with the participants of the study. The critical theory tries to challenge the existing guiding assumptions of a researcher rather that describing them. The research design includes the means through which the research will be conducted. The application of the selected research design methods are described independently.
1 Qualitative research In a qualitative research, the study seeks to understand the thoughts, attitudes, and feelings of the research respondents. According to Pathak, Jena, & Kalra (2013), a qualitative approach is important because it uses different interventional studies are not achieved only through the measurement of the variables used in a study. There are various types of qualitative research and they include ethnographic research, case studies, grounded theory approach, the narrative approach, and phenomenon research. the research approach is the case study. A case study is used to provide a detailed explanation and review of an organization, company, or event based on different sets of data. Besides, a researcher may use a case study to understand the difference between the research context and the phenomenon portrayed by the participants of the study.
Qualitative research designs are primarily used in many projects because they offer comprehensive information to the participants. 2 Quantitative research A quantitative research approach involves the use of various aspects to understand the numerous behaviors of the study participants (Sutton & Austin, 2015). An experimental research assigns variables randomly to the participants of the study to ascertain their increased confidence in the established relationships. According to Smith (2009), a quasi-experimental research involves the use of non-randomized scenarios and getting a true picture of the study is almost impossible in most cases. Through quantitative research design, a research has positive ways of approving or disapproving the objectives and variables of a study. This research intends to adopt a descriptive research design. According to Omair (2015), descriptive research design is important in the description of the characteristics of the participants of the study.
Sampling helps the research to develop a more accurate measurement style for a study. In a research, a sampling procedure is essential because it helps in the selection of the right participants of the project from the entire population. Besides, the procedure will help in the determination of the attributes of the participants. This study intends to use systematic sampling to get the right sample size for the study. Systematic sampling is a technique involving the selection of the participants frequently from the entire population. Using the questionnaire, the researcher will be able to measure the characteristics, the personality, opinions, and intentions of the participants of the study. The questionnaire as a data collection instrument will help the participants to have adequate time to answer the questions and give the right information based on the aims of the study.
Besides, the tool will ensure that the researcher provides the same questions to all the participants. Using an interview schedule, the researcher will gather the data concerning the application required jurisdiction of study. According to Stuckey (2013), an interview schedule can be structured, semi-structured, or narrative depending on the nature of the research. Reliability will help the researcher to make certain that the data collection tools are stable and will provide consistent results. According to (Bolarinwa, 2015), reliability helps in determining the replication of the instruments used in the study. To ensure that the tools are reliable a test-rest will be conducted. Through the test-retest, the researcher will be able to determine the stability of the questionnaire and the interview schedule. The test-restest is used in the measuring of the correlations of scores of the first administration of the data collection tools and the second data collected from the respondents.
Most of the time, inductive approach is used in qualitative data. Inductive approach helps a researcher to develop a detailed observation of various events and situations in the real world using generalization of ideas. 1Deductive approach Deductive approach helps in testing the hypothesis of a study and therefore it is used in quantitative data. The deductive data approach involves the use of theories, developing hypothesis in relation to the theories, and analyzing the collected data to test the hypothesis. The deductive data approach tend to develop specific reasoning the general hypothesis of the study. Figure 3: Qualitative analysis procedure (Sutton & Austin, 2015) The researcher intends to use the ANOVA software in the analysis of the quantitative data as used in the research process.
The standard deviation, mean, and statistical testing will be carried out. The determination of correlation coefficients and examination of the significance will be effectively done for data quality. 11 Ethical considerations According to Chetty, 2016) in research it is crucial to maintaining the values of accountability, trust, mutual respect, and fairness when dealing with the participants of the study. In any research study, the researcher has to ensure that the data gathered from the respondents is only used for this study and in case of misleading information; the researcher has to undertake an ethical procedure to solve the problem. The quality of the research, the availability of the respondents and the scope of the area of study guides the right selection of the target population.
The data collection process can employ questionnaires, direct interviews, and other tools of communication based on the budget of the research process and the availability of the respondents. To analyze this data, a couple of techniques are to be used. These techniques are directly linked to the standards of the research. For qualitative data, transcription of the interviews is necessary. , & Chaudhury, S. Statistics without tears: Populations and samples. Industrial psychiatry journal, 19 (1), 60–65. Bolarinwa, O. A. Retrieved August 30, 2018, from Project guru: https://www. projectguru. in/publications/selecting-research-approach-business-studies/ Crossman, A. (2018, April 04). How Systematic Sampling Works. surveygizmo. com/resources/blog/taking-the-question-out-of-questionnaires/ Omair, A. Selecting the appropriate study design for your research: Descriptive study designs. J Health Spec, 3, 153-156. Pathak, V. The Radiographer, 56 (3), 6–10. Sousa, V. D.
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