Soc 101 Study guide

Document Type:Coursework

Subject Area:Sociology

Document 1

Durkheim says the hunter-gatherer society as the society with the least social inequity. Pastoral societies This is nomadic people who move from one place to another with a herd of animals which provide them food. Pastoral society is a social system where animal breeding and herding is the main source of livelihood. Agricultural societies This is a society whose contractual societal order rely upon farming. They are also called the agrarian society. Institutionalization This is the process where the social norms are transformed through human interactions. This involves the impacting social concepts such as beliefs, norms, particular values and culture to the societal system. Bureaucracies Bureaucracy is the government body with non-elective positions such as the administrative positions. Max Weber termed bureaucracy as the rational and efficient system to organize human activities in organized hierarchies and systematic processes in order to bring order, eliminate favoritism and maximize efficiency.

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Division of labor This is a process where the states/ organization scales down into different levels for the workers to focus on their specific tasks. Meritocracy uses the merit of “rule of talented” and personal merit. Social stratification This is the social differentiation where the society is grouped into socioeconomic strata based on different factors like occupation, income, social status and wealth. This is a system where the society categorizes people into various social hierarchies such as power or prestige. Social mobility This is defined as the movement of persons from one social class to another. Such changes may be from lower class to middle class or middle class to top class. Other types of sexual identities are regarded as unnatural and prohibited.

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Doing gender This is the classical sociological theory that in western culture, gender is a psychologically ingrained societal construct that develops in everyday human interaction rather than being a human quality of individuals. The social construction of sexuality This is an act of orienting or identifying sexual behavior like homosexual such that you find it being practiced by not all the people but a few. This can also be how individuals both male and female aresexualactive as they grow. Nuclear family This is a family group made up of two parents and their children's. This is also where all citizens who are eligible for voting vote select people serve and lead in passing laws. Globalization This is a way of encouraging interaction between people worldwide as a result of technological development and advancement.

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This is also the expansion of international linkages leading to a growth of global understanding. Outsourcing This is only taking control of public resources to private property or practice applied by companies or organizations with the aim of reducing cost and improving efficiency by moving tasks to contracted parties. Structural unemployment This refers to unemployment caused by a change of technology in which the required skill is unavailable. Question 3 Agriculture played a key role in the emergence of states like the influence of agrarian revolution and the effects of agriculture on quality of life, health,and the well-being. The question examines the influence of agriculture and the need for formation of states. Question 4 Nutritionism this determines the value of each foodstuff in our diet.

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How is Nutritionism the result of industrial agriculture? Pollan says food production has shifted to individual nutrients but not the beneficial effects of whole food. Pollan defines Nutritionism as a nutrient-by-nutrient approach. The questiondetermines the characteristics of the different economic time periods. Explores how the world economy has evolved during the agricultural era to the postindustrial society Question 9 This determines the relationship between family life and the economy. Family life is defined as the daily activities and interactions that families have. The question seeks to determine how different economic factors for the agrarian era to post-industrial revolution have influenced family interactions. Question 10 Aspiration gap- social aspiration gap is the vacuum between the society that we wish to build and the society we are currently living in.

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In the Omnivore Dilemma, Michael Pollan says that these companies have to find a way to entice the people to consume more or raise the price of those foods. Question 14 Karl Marx terms Hegemony as the manipulation of the society by the ruling calls. Nutritionism according to Pollan is an ideology because we cannot see the nutrients itself but rely on the scientist’s to explain the hidden values in the food unknown to us. For us to truly determine, the difference between the foods scientists suggest which is better, for example, which rice is healthier between brown and white sugar; we have to pick a sample of guys and run the tests for a year or more. We only remain to hope what scientists are saying is true.

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